How Long Are Substances Detectable?

Laboratory

Have you ever wondered how long substances are detectable in a urine drug test? Below is an overview of some substances that are detected and their detection time in urine drug testing.

 

Contact us if you are interested in more information.

Opioids
Substance Detected As Detection Time in Urine
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine & Norbuprenorphine 2 to 4 days
Codeine Codeine & Morphine 2 to 3 days
Dihydrocodeine Dihyrocodeine & Hydrocodone 2 to 3 days
Fentanyl Fentanyl 1 to 3 days
Heroin 6-MAM & Morphine 8 hours
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone & Hydromorphone 1 to 3 days
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone 1 to 3 days
Levorphanol Levorphanol Unknown
Meperidine Meperidine & Normeperidine 1 to 2 days
Methadone Methadone Up to 14 days
Methadone metabolite (EDDP) 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrroldine Up to 14 days
Morphine Morphine 2 to 3 days
Oxycodone Oxycodone & Oxymorphone 2 to 3 days
Oxymorphone Oxymorphone 2 to 3 days
Propoxyphene Propoxyphene & Norpropoxyphene Up to 7 days
Tapentadol Tapentadol 2 to 3 days
Tramadol Tramadol & O-Desmethyltramadol 2 to 4 days
Benzodiazepines
Substance Detected As Detection Time in Urine
Alprazolam alpha-Hydroxyalprazolam 2 to 4 days
Chlordiazepoxide Nordiazepam Oxazepam 2 to 4 days
Clonazepam 7-Aminoclonazepam 2 to 4 days
Diazepam Nordiazepam & Oxazepam 2 to 7 days
Flunitrazepam 7-Aminoflunitrazepam Unknown
Flurazepam 2-Hydroxyethyl flurazepam Up to 20 days
Lorazepam Lorazepam 5 to 7 days
Midazolam alpha-hydroxymidazolam Unknown
Oxazepam Oxazepam 2 to 7 days
Temezpam Oxazepam & Temezepam 1 to 4 days
Triazolam alpha-Hydroxytriazolam 1 to 2 days
Musculoskeletal Relaxants
Substance Detected As Detection Time in Urine
Carisoprodol Carisoprodol 1 day
Meprobamate Meprobamate 2 to 3 days
Stimulants
Substance Detected As Detection Time in Urine
Amphetamines Amphetamine 3 to 5 days
Cocaine metabolite (BE) Benzoylecgonine 1 to 2 days
Methamphetamine AMPH & MAMPH 3 to 5 days
Methylenedioxyamphetamine MDA 3 to 5 days
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDA & MDMA 3 to 5 days
Methylenedioxyethylamphetamine MDA & MDEA 3 to 5 days
Other Substances
Substance Detected As Detection Time in Urine
Cannabinoids (THC) THC-COOH Up to 45 days
Phencyclidine (PCP) PCP Unknown
Nicotine Cotinine 1 to 3 days
Alcohol EtOH 2 to 10 hours

FMCSA Drug & Alcohol Clearinghouse Services

18-Wheeler on Highway

In preparation for the upcoming FMCSA Drug & Alcohol Clearinghouse effective January 6, 2020, NTA offers:

  • Updated FMCSA Substance Abuse Policies and Driver Educational Materials to add the new component of FMCSR Part 382.601 (#12). These updates are included in the Annual Management Fee for existing clients.
    • Policies and Educational material can be purchased by non-clients for $50.00.
  • Important: Owner-operators are required to designate a Third Party Administrator (TPA) to manage their clearinghouse processes. Nationwide Testing Association is your Third Party Administrator. If you need help registering and designating us as your TPA, please call our office.
    • Managing the clearinghouse process for owner-operators will be included in your annual management fee.

 

Our clients may choose to add the following package of services to their program. This package may be billed as a monthly, quarterly, or yearly subscription.

  • Full Queries run automatically after the completion of a pre-employment DOT drug test.
  • Annual Limited Queries run automatically on all drivers, either based on a predetermined date or scheduled with your annual MVR with Nationwide Testing Association.
  • Coordination, evaluation, and assistance with all required reporting.
  • Assistance in understanding and interpreting clearinghouse data.

 

Contact us for a quote!

What Is A Dilute Drug Test?

Water In A Drinking Glass

Have you ever received a drug test result that said dilute? Applicants and employees who know they are going to test positive may attempt to tamper with their sample to pass the test. The most common way of doing this is by diluting their urine, leading to a dilute drug test result.

Diluting urine means that the donor drinks a significant quantity of water before providing a specimen, and their body is overly hydrated. However, it is possible that a donor doesn’t do this with the intent of cheating the system and simply drinks a lot of water in general.

It is widely known that some donors try to dilute their urine because they consumed drugs and are trying to flush out their system. This practice will result in a dilute drug test result.

What can be done?

A dilute drug test result can still be used. If it is positive dilute, then it is positive and the employer should proceed accordingly. However, If it is negative, the employer does have a few options to help in making the best determination.

An employer can require that anyone who has a negative dilute drug test be retested. The employer can specify that the donor retest via another urine drug test or can choose another testing method that may be harder to cheat. Keep in mind that when testing a DOT donor, it may be necessary to retest that donor under a Non-DOT policy if choosing another testing method. This would mean that the test, if positive, would not report to the clearinghouse as DOT only allows for DOT urine samples. The employer can choose other options like a hair follicle or saliva drug test, which are both conducted under direct observation. Contact our office for help in developing a testing protocol for a dilute drug test.

Illicit drug users who test negative dilute often slip through the system and get hired more often than one would think. Sometimes, these users will get caught through random testing or reasonable suspicion testing. Don’t risk it! The safety of the workplace should come first! We are here to help provide the resources needed to promote safety in the workplace. Contact us for answers to any questions!

CBD & Workplace Drug Testing

CBD Molecule

Recently CBD has gained popularity as some researchers say it could be highly beneficial to treat certain medical conditions. Many employers have questions about the effects of CBD on safety and how it will relate to their workplace drug testing policy and practices.

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol or CBD is one of approximately 400 compounds found in cannabis, the same plant that produces the compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). While CBD comes from the same plant as THC and shares some similarities, it does not produce a “high.” Early research shows that CBD may benefit medical and therapeutic issues such as seizures, neurological diseases, pain, cancer, inflammation, and mood disorders, including PTSD.

In some medical marijuana states, CBD products are allowed to have residual levels of THC up to 5%. Early research of CBD products has shown some adverse reactions in some people such as drowsiness, fatigue, decreased blood pressure, anxiety, possible endocrine disruption, altered immune function, dizziness, psychomotor slowing, and diarrhea.

 Will I fail my test?

CBD itself would not report positive for marijuana or the marijuana metabolite. If the CBD product contains THC at a sufficiently high concentration (5% or higher as allowed in some states where medical/recreational marijuana is decriminalized), it may cause a positive. Keep in mind that CBD with a residual level of 5% THC is not legal in all states.

It is important to remember that neither CBD nor medical marijuana use is allowed to be considered an alternative medical explanation for the positive test result when the test is regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

The important part of workplace testing is to educate your staff and managers. Give us a call if you have any specific questions about CBD use in the workplace! 1.800.452.0030 ext. 0

Medical Review Officer (MRO) Services

Doctor With Pill Bottle

Medical Review Officer (MRO) is a licensed physician responsible for receiving and reviewing laboratory results generated by an employer’s drug testing program. Regulations require that Medical Review Officers have knowledge about the pharmacology and toxicology of prescriptions as well as illicit drugs. An MRO should also have knowledge of the federal agency drug testing regulations and guidelines from the Department Of Transportation.

As a Medical Review Officer (MRO), we must act as an independent and impartial “gatekeeper” and advocate for the accuracy and integrity of the drug testing process. Nationwide Testing Association, Inc., is required to review the documents for possible errors, interview donors who have non-negative results to determine if there is a legitimate medical explanation for their results, and provide feedback to employers regarding performance problems, if necessary.

At Nationwide Testing Association, Inc., our Medical Review Officers (MRO) are certified by a nationally recognized MRO certification board. We ensure that our MROs maintain their certifications by retaking and passing the exam every five years.

Medical Review Officer (MRO) Process

The first part of the process is the collection; the employee/donor/applicant will go into the collection site to provide the required specimen. The collection site will follow applicable protocols and will ship the specimen, along with the lab copy of the Custody and Control Form (CCF), to the laboratory to begin testing. The collection site should also transmit the Medical Review Officer and the DER copy of the CCF to the correct parties.

Once the laboratory receives the specimen, they will begin conducting the required testing. Once completed, the laboratory will transmit the results to the MRO to review and report.

After the Custody and Control Form (CCF) is received, the donor’s name and id number are entered into the system. The Custody and Control Form is then processed so that it will link to the result.

When the lab results are received through an electronic interface, they are immediately downloaded into our system. During this process, the result links to the client, the donor record, and the Custody and Control Form. The system will also determine an applicable status for the result based on pre-set identifiers and criteria

If the lab result is non-negative the system will automatically assign that result to our Medical Review Office, they are then reviewed by our Medical Review Officers. Each donor with a non-negative result will have the opportunity to speak with an MRO regarding their results.

If the lab result is negative, they will report to the company automatically through the system. If the laboratory results appear positive, the MRO will interview the donor to discuss the results and then the final report will be distributed to the company. The medical review process offers an opportunity for the donor to provide a valid medical explanation for any questionable results. Our process is designed to protect individuals and employers from wrongful accusations. We exceed all federal and state regulations and help you maintain a safer workplace!

Contact us today to learn about the Nationwide Difference!

Fentanyl – What the Employer Needs to Know

Fentanyl

By now, most employers are aware of the Opioid Epidemic. But are they aware of another dangerous epidemic that is growing? Fentanyl- a potent opioid has been steadily on the rise. And even more disturbing, is the combination of Fentanyl and Cocaine, and the combination of Fentanyl and Heroin. The City of Baltimore, a city heavily affected by the opioid epidemic, recognizes that most of the heroin on the street is now almost always laced with the highly dangerous synthetic opioid fentanyl, according to a new study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Public Health Challenges

A recent study highlighted some public health challenges caused by fentanyl-adulterated cocaine:

  1. First responders and those present at the scene of a cocaine overdose may consider administering Naloxone even if the patient denied using opioids.
  2. Fentanyl is very dangerous and powerful and dramatically increases the risk of lethal overdose.
  3. Opioid-naïve individuals that have been using fentanyl-free cocaine lack a potentially life-saving tolerance for opioids. Adding fentanyl to their drug of choice puts this group at an even higher risk of fatal overdose.
  4. Opioid-naïve cocaine users are typically not targeted by current harm reduction strategies and public messages concerning opioid overdose. A lack of education and access to critical resources, including naloxone —the lifesaving overdose reversal drug— render this population more vulnerable to a fatal overdose.

What Steps Can the Employer Take?

Consider adding Fentanyl to your current non-DOT testing program. But even more important is educating your management team and employees on the dangers of substance abuse. An effective substance abuse policy paired with employee education will not only enhance your testing program but may save a life.

Citation

*Nolan, M. L., Shamasunder, S., Colon-Berezin, C., Kunins, H. V., & Paone, D. (2019). Increased presence of fentanyl in cocaine-involved fatal overdoses: implications for prevention. Journal of Urban Health, 1-6.